- Intercept the sunlight during the period of maximum radiation and turn that sunlight into roots, shoots and leaves. This plant material will have several benefits to the new zero tillage farming system we are adopting. The roots will penetrate down in to the soil breaking up soil compaction, create drainage channels (when they die) and release sugars in the soil to feed the soil fungi and bacteria, which in turn feed earthworms.
- The leaves and stems of the plants will store nutrients that might otherwise leak or escape from the soil which could create pollution. Things like sulphate and nitrate are very soluble in water but non-mobile when part of a plant.
- Create soil armour. August has always been the farms wettest month, with heavy thundery summer storms hammering down on the soil surface. By having a protective shield on the surface, in the form of leaves, the rainfall is intercepted and can infiltrate at a faster rate, with reduced micro compaction on the surface.
- When the cover crop is destroyed the dead material will slowly turn into organic matter (OM) which can hold greater amounts of nutrients and water than mineral particles. OM can potentially hold 10x more water than the mineral soil alone. Few arable soils in the UK or around the world have OM levels greater than 5%, which is where it needs to be as a minimum. The OM will help to feed the soil bacteria and fungi which in turn will help to feed our crops.
- Reduce weeds in the seed bank, as some of the seeds will be germinated when the cover crop is planted which will be destroyed with the cover crop.
Tuesday, 12 January 2016
The 5 Minute Fallow
Well after 2 years of trialling and testing, of calculating and studying our Cross Slot drill has finally arrived, imported all the way form New Zealand. I say finally arrived, it actually arrived in July 2015 but shamefully I have neglected my blog, so here's an update on my latest thinking and plans.
The 5 minute fallow is the first place to start. The picture above shows the drill planting a cover crop mix directly behind the combine. Why are we doing this, I hear you ask? The cover crop plants will stay in the ground after the oilseed rape has been harvested and before we plant wheat in the same field. The job of the cover crop is to:
Cover Crop at 4 weeks old
After the cover crop comes the main crop in the case of the field below, wheat. This picture was taken at the end of October when the crop was about 4 weeks old and shows good even plant establishment with little sign of pest (slug) activity. The crop, if anything, is a little too thick.
Wheat Planted after Cover Crop
A cover crop is not a "fix all problems in the field from a bag, rather than a chemical container" but it does have a lot of advantages when it comes to improving the soil health and workability of the soil. It will contribute to increasing OM levels and it will create drainage channels to improve water infiltration into the soil, key when reducing soil erosion and storing more water in the fields, and can help reduce flooding down-stream. We use cover crops to reduce the exposure of our soils to the elements of wind, sun and water; all of which have massive long term benefits. I will be back with a follow up blog on dealing with cover crops and getting the next crop established through increased levels of crop residue.
Tuesday, 8 September 2015
A very belated post and not really in keeping with the time of year but I have just discovered these photographs on my phone and thought I would share them after a conversation with Caroline Drummond from LEAF (Linking Environment and Farming) about the importance of providing habitat for beneficial insects. In an ideal world it would be good to farm without insecticides; allowing mother nature to control the pests that predate our crops and impact on the quality of the food they produce or the yield. Is there a way to enable larger numbers of these biological helpers to control the pests for us? Habitats such as grass margins, beetle banks and pollen and nectar strips have all shown to increase the numbers of beneficial insects that can help control the pests.
Work undertaken at the Game and Wildlife Conservation Trust at Loddington show how a simple step, like creating a Beetle Bank in fields over 20 Ha (50 acres) have have a huge benefit to providing habitat of overwintering beneficial insects like spiders. These guys are then able to migrate across the field and help protect the crop from invading pests like the black bean aphid or others. But what about using biological help in a different form? Could we spray fungi and bacteria onto our fields to help deter pests, disease and potentially weeds? All things to be considered in the future which are currently being used in green houses and controlled environments but could they be used in the wider landscape?
Friday, 24 July 2015
Early summer is one of my favourite times on the farm when the hard work of the year, on so many levels, starts to pay off. The ears of wheat and barley, the pods on the oilseed rape are starting to fill up and the countryside springs into life with a fantastic display of colours and different species. There is no doubt that we live in a sculpted and managed environment. People are quick to forget this point and since the first settlers began turning their back on nomadic life, our landscape has become man made.
We must not loose sight of the fact that we need to create space for wildlife and mother nature in our very groomed landscape. We need to create space for our insects to breed and in turn become food for birds. The space can be populated by flowers adding to our enjoyment of our surroundings and we should take time out to appreciate these wonders.
Our field margins, that we cultivated last autumn are a wonderful mix of poppies, cornflowers and are alive with insects. There are so many skylarks that tripping over them is almost a certainty! They are nesting the wheat and barley crops in the purposely sprayed out skylark plots as well as the rough grassland periodically grazed by our sheep. The diversity of the landscape is what makes it so special. This must all be done in addition to providing safe, healthy and profitable crops that are wanted by our customers. Growing wheat that ends up in Kellogg's Cereals as part of the origins group really enables a connection between farmers and customers, a connection we are proud to support.
We have also planted specific pollinator mixes around some of the oilseed rape field margins which are delivering huge benefits in terms of food supply for insects. Mixtures of crimson clover, phacelia, daisy's and other annual flowers have been a great addition to the work we are doing on the farm to improve diversity of beneficial species and create a better habitat for us all to live and work in.
Wednesday, 15 April 2015
The spring has finally arrived after a fairly dry but chilly start to the year. Rainfall totals for the farm, from the remote weather station indicated just over 100mm of rain since 1st January. Soil temperatures, however have been really cold, only getting into the critical range for seed germination of between 7-8 degrees at the end of March. Seeds will obviously germinate at lower temperatures but the emergence of the crop will be slower, leaving the seedlings exposed to pest (slug and pigeons) attack for a longer period of time. An old saying that spring barley should be out of the bag and out of the ground in the same week should be remembered. This is especially true for crops that are direct drilled in non-cultivated soils. Cultivation warms up the soil by moving the soil, and can help dry out the soil to allow earlier plantings, but there are disadvantages.
By drying out the soil it leaves less moisture available to germinate the seeds especially if the weather turns warm and windy after the seeds have been planted. It also risks smearing the soil at the lower depths, where the tine or disk is working, which means putting a deeper compaction layer in the soil. It also burns up the organic matter in the soil releasing carbon into the atmosphere. I remember in spring 2013 we planted spring barley ahead of my Nuffield trip to Canada and three weeks later the seeds hadn't emerged, it was that cold. It just goes to show that you can't farm by the calendar!
There is also a practical balance to think about as well, we can't justify having enough man and machinery power to drill everything on the perfect day, so we have to start when we can on the suitable fields in order to get the crops planted. These are two pictures of beans (top) and peas (below), planted using a direct drill (no cultivation) system. The peas have germinated and the roots have started to emerge within 3 days, which is great news. The seedbed was moist and warm so crop establishment will be quick and will hopefully outgrow the early attack of marauding pigeons! The beans were planted 10 days earlier, but germination was slower as the seed bed was cooler. As the sun shines the soil will continue to warm up and it is important that these crops get away to the very best start to optimise their potential and deliver a good harvest in August. There's a long way to go and we'll have to wait and see how the season develops.
Friday, 27 March 2015
It's that busy time of year again when we start to prepare for the lambing season. Reg and George have been working hard to prepare the sheep, the buildings and the machinery ready for the mad rush starting around the 10th April.
If you are interested in learning more about how a sheep flock runs or what it's like to work in agriculture do come along to our 'Lambing Live' event on the 19th April. Tractors and trailers will be ferrying visitors from the village hall in Overbury up to Park Farm to see the sheep flock doing their stuff. Rides start at 10.00am with the last tractor leaving at 15.00 from the hall - returning at 16.00. Unfortunately we can't accommodate pregnant ladies at the lambing sheds for Health and Safety reasons, but you would be more than welcome to visit the village hall to see the displays and purchase teas and coffee's in aid of the village hall kitchen fund. If you would to donate to Farm Africa as I am running this year's London Marathon with Michelle, (See previous blog) for that charity it would be very much appreciated!
Our game keeping team will also be present and available for questions and information on some of the shooting and conservation activities that take place on the farm. So there will be lots to see and do. Parking and entry for children is free but we make a small charge of £5/adult. For the most up to date information please visit Overbury Farms Facebook page and please share the news!
We had a special visit today from some of the senior management team at Sainsbury's where we took the opportunity to show them around the sheep flock and told them of our future plans for a sustainable integrated arable and sheep enterprise. Almost 100% of our lamb is sold to Sainsbury's and we enjoy a close working relationship with a dedicated ans supporting retailer. Our lamb is primarily used on the in-store butchery counters so next time you are paying a visit to your local Sainsburys store you could be eating our lamb!
Sunday, 15 February 2015
For those of you that know me well, you will recall that every now and then I set myself a little challenge to raise some funds for a well know charity. In the past I have run the Bath half marathon for the RNLI and cycled for the Princes Trust as part of the Molson Barley Growers Team. Well I have signed up with Michelle to run the Virgin London Marathon on the 26th April 2015. I have run a half marathon before but never committed to the full monty! Michelle hasn't really done very much running at all but like me is often challenging herself to complete a tough physical challenge. The training has been on-going, on and off for the last couple of months but now it is time to get serious!
We are running for Farm Africa a charity based in East Africa that aims to help farmers and their families out of poverty and end hunger forever. Farm Africa's staff provide the tools and expertise enabling small holders to increase their harvests, whether they farm crops, livestock, fish or forest.
Eight of out ten rural Africans scrape their living from small plots. Soils are often poor, and drought risk is high. Farm Africa brings in smart crops, moisture retaining farming techniques and marketing skills that make these traditional farming systems viable, profitable and sustainable.
We choose to run for Farm Africa for a number of reasons. As people connected with producing food and looking after the environment we thought that showing people how to grow food in a sustainable way was certainly better than just donating cash. Educating and providing tools so people could grow a little more than their families need, to be able to sell or trade has be a more sustainable way of encouraging people to produce food for their communities. The tools and support we can provide will make a real difference to the East African farmers. I was born in Zambia and my godfather Martin Riley worked in Africa helping farmers improve their farming systems ultimately growing more food for themselves, which is why I feel that this is a very worth while charity that farming and rural people can help and support. If you feel that you can donate, then every penny will be well spent. Please click our Virgin Money Giving Page to get to our fund raising page. Training updates will follow so please stay tuned to follow our progress!
Quila and myself had a training session along the sea defences at Burnham Deepdale in north Norfolk this weekend after the Norfolk Farming Conference which was a real treat. Do keep coming back to the blog to see how the miles clock up and training runs progress. Thank you for your anticipated sponsorship.
Wednesday, 28 January 2015
As part of the HGCA's Shake Up Your Wake Up week we took the Overbury Grasshoppers out onto the farm to see where the raw ingredients for their breakfast cereals or toast start off. It was a cold blustery start in the wheat fields, and it certainly woke all the children up, as well a healthy breakfast!
The field we looked at was a field of Invicta wheat which we are growing for Kellogg's. The plants are very small at the moment due to the winter cold temperatures and low sunlight levels. As spring warms up and the plant food is delivered they will soon start to grow. After the field we headed to the grain store to look at the breakfast cereal making wheat we grew last year, to have a look at the raw ingredients that are milled and turned in great tasting breakfasts such as Bran Flakes, Sultana Bran, Fruit and Fibre, Minimax and Special K.
The children certainly enjoyed getting handfuls of wheat and letting it run through their fingers, feeling the texture and the hardness of the small grains.